Autoimmune diseases. A modern look.
There is a group of diseases that are referred to as the so-called autoimmune diseases. These diseases include Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Autoimmune Thyroiditis, Autoimmune Hepatitis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Ulcerative Colitis, and other autoimmune diseases.
How do autoimmune diseases develop?
It is obvious that autoimmune diseases got their general name because the immune system somehow participates in their development.
Normally, the main role of the immune system is to maintain the genetic homogeneity of our body. The appearance within the body of foreign genetic information (bacteria, viruses), or its own, but altered genetic information (atypical cells), initiates the defense reactions of the immune system.
The cells of the immune system recognize such foreign / altered genetic information and with the help of their cells and special protein molecules - antibodies - the carriers of foreign genetic information are destroyed and removed from the body.
It should be noted that ordinary cells of the immune system - leukocytes and ordinary antibodies - are able to distinguish their own from others and will never behave aggressively towards their own cells and tissues.
The development and progression of autoimmune diseases is associated with the presence in the body of an excess amount of specific leukocytes - autoimmune leukocytes that produce autoimmune antibodies.
Unlike conventional antibodies aimed at antigens foreign to our body, autoimmune antibodies are able to bind to the antigens of the cells of their body and damage these cells.
Where do autoimmune (autoaggressive) antibodies come from?
Until recently, there was no clear answer to this question. It was believed that - the appearance of autoimmune antibodies in the body - this is some kind of malfunction in the immune system. How it happened was not clear.
Currently, the approaches to the development of autoimmune diseases have changed significantly.
It has been proven that the presence of autoimmune leukocytes and autoimmune antibodies in the body is not a pathology - this is the norm
In our body, autoimmune mechanisms work, which include specialized cells of the immune system - autoimmune leukocytes, which themselves are capable of carrying out immune reactions aimed at damaging and destroying cells in their body and, in particular, are capable of producing autoaggressive (autoimmune) antibodies.
Why did nature create a system in our body aimed at destroying our cells and tissues?
It has been established that autoimmune mechanisms perform very important functions in our body. Autoimmune mechanisms - this is one of the regulatory systems of the body, it is one of the body's cleaning systems.
On each cell of our body there are special protein molecules - identification marks (receptors, markers) - indicating that a given cell belongs to this particular organism. It is by these markers that ordinary cells of the immune system recognize the cells of their body and do not show hostility to them.
The cells of our body live, perform their functions, but the time comes and the cells die. And on the outer shell of such a dead cell, markers of belonging to this organism remain.
Only autoimmune mechanisms - autoimmune leukocytes and autoimmune antibodies - can remove such an aged, functionally inactive or dead cell from the body.
This is not the only task of autoimmune mechanisms. There are others, no less important, the destruction of atypical, oncological cells. With a normally functioning immune system, autoimmune mechanisms that can damage cells and tissues of the body are under strict control by special mechanisms of control of the immune system.
The mechanisms for controlling autoimmune processes are other specialized cells of the immune system and antibodies that can destroy autoimmune white blood cells and autoantibodies.
In a normal situation, the number of autoimmune leukocytes and autoimmune antibodies is in a strictly defined range.
The normal level of autoimmune leukocytes, like many other natural processes in our body, is regulated according to the principle of feedback. This is a kind of scales.
From time to time in our body, for various reasons (for example, an infectious process that has resulted in the death of a large number of body cells), an activation of autoimmune mechanisms occurs (that is, an increase in the number of autoimmune leukocytes and autoimmune antibodies).
However, in a normal situation - immediately after the autoimmune mechanisms have completed their tasks - have removed the dead cells - the mechanisms of control over autoimmune processes are activated - the number of corresponding specific leukocytes and antibodies increases.
Subsequently, the destruction of an excess amount of autoimmune leukocytes and autoimmune antibodies by the corresponding cells of the immune system occurs. The unbalanced system - "autoimmune mechanisms / mechanisms of control over autoimmune processes" returns to its original equilibrium state.
However, under certain conditions, the work of the mechanisms for controlling autoimmune processes is disrupted.
What are the reasons for the malfunction of the mechanisms of control over autoimmune processes?
The development of autoimmune diseases is a violation of the folded work of the immune system, which has developed as a result of:
- Environmental factors (ecology, nature of food, harmful production factors, magnetic fields)
- Lifestyle (eating habits, bad habits, physical inactivity, violation of the daily routine and circadian rhythm, chronic stress)
- Chronic infectious processes. No one will dispute the role of chronic infections in the development of multiple sclerosis, or certain bacterial infections in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. It is chronically occurring infectious processes that are a constantly acting factor in the activation of autoimmune mechanisms. Sooner or later, such a prolonged activation of autoimmune processes leads to a violation of control mechanisms.
- Ultimately - there is an overstrain of the control mechanisms and a breakdown in compensation - the weakened mechanisms of control over autoimmune leukocytes cease to adequately respond to the excess content of specific autoimmune leukocytes in the body.
- Taking medications. Most of the population constantly takes 1-2 drugs, which leads to disruption of the body's homeostasis and auto-aggression
That is, a generation of autoimmune leukocytes appears in the body, to which the immune system has ceased to adequately respond.
Uncontrolled autoimmune white blood cells and autoimmune antibodies begin to destroy healthy cells in their body
Excessive amounts of autoimmune white blood cells that are out of control of the immune system begin to damage their own healthy tissues - an autoimmune disease develops.
The nature of the disease will be determined by the specificity of the out-of-control autoimmune leukocytes. That is, if the out-of-control autoimmune leukocytes are specific to myelin basic protein and other neuronal antigens - multiple sclerosis develops, if autoimmune leukocytes are specific to joint tissue antigens - rheumatoid arthritis will develop.
Standard protocols for treating autoimmune diseases include drug therapy
Traditional drug therapy for autoimmune diseases is based on the use of immunosuppressive drugs. The purpose of their use is to suppress the activity of the immune system so as to reduce the activity of immune-inflammatory processes. With this or that success - in most cases, this problem is solved.
Unfortunately, all of these drugs have non-selective effects and significant side effects. By suppressing the activity of autoimmune processes, these drugs also suppress the normal protective functions of the immune system. It is with this feature of these drugs that a significant number of complications are associated with the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Obviously, this situation cannot suit either the patient or the doctor who treats patients with autoimmune diseases.
Therefore, scientific work is constantly being carried out aimed at finding new, safer and more effective methods of treating autoimmune diseases.
Our center contains the most effective modern methods of treating autoimmune pathology by restoring damage to the immune system at any of its levels, restoring it and, as a result, successfully getting rid of an autoimmune disease.